- 1,999 United States Navy
- 233 United States Army (including the Air Corps)
- 109 United States Marine Corps
- 49 Civilians
2,390 in total. An additional 1,178 were wounded, and survived.
The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor was devastating to the United States Navy's Pacific fleet. Naval doctrine prior to World War II focused on the centrality of the battleship. Naval war would be decided by big guns on both sides slugging it out shell for shell.
Pearl Harbor was the beginning of the end of the battleship as the dominant capital warship for the United States, mainly because with eight of the nine Pacific Fleet battleships destroyed or severely damaged, the aircraft carriers were the only striking force the US Navy had left.
The attack itself, clearly, was evidence of the ascendancy of the aircraft carrier. Two Japanese fast battleships - Hiei and Kirishima - accompanied Vice Admiral Chūichi Nagumo's 1st Air Fleet as escorts for the Pearl Harbor attack, but weren't involved in any shooting. Aircraft from the six Japanese carriers - Akagi, Hiryū, Kaga, Shōkaku, Sōryū, and Zuikaku - did all the damage.
What was the ultimate cost to the United States Navy in capital ships? Here's what happened to all nine battleships, listed in order of their hull numbers, belonging to the Pacific Fleet on December 7, 1941.
I hope you take the time to read the whole thing.
USS Nevada (BB-36)
Commissioned in 1916, Nevada was the lead ship of a new class of battleships - the first built for the United States Navy to use fuel oil from construction rather than coal-fired boilers. She was modified during a 2 1/2-year refit in 1927-1930.
On December 7th, Nevada was the only of the battleships in Pearl Harbor that wasn't sharing its moorings with another vessel. Her engineers got up steam, and she tried to escape the harbor. Contemporaneous accounts from the attack say that being able to see Nevada making for open ocean as bombs and torpedoes were exploding was a gigantic morale boost. At around 0950 local, she was struck by five bombs; too much damage for her to continue. Nevada beached at Hospital Point at about 1030 hours so as not to block the harbor. 60 men were killed and 109 wounded aboard her.
|USS Nevada beached after the Pearl Harbor attack|
|Forward 14" guns of Nevada bombarding France on D-Day|
|Capsized USS Oklahoma with damaged USS Maryland behind|
|USS Arizona (BB-39) as she appeared in the 1930s|
|USS Arizona is destroyed by forward main battery magazine explosion|
|Arizona in the aftermath|
|Arizona as she lies today|
|"To the memory of the gallant men here entombed and their shipmates who gave their lives in action on December 7, 1941 on the USS Arizona"|
|View of Arizona from Missouri|
|USS Tennessee bombards Japanese positions on Guam, July 1944|
|USS Colorado after the Tinian Battle, multiple shell holes visible|
|USS Maryland on left, capsized USS Oklahoma on right|
|Rebuilt USS West Virginia, 1944|